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GMAT PREP SC 语法笔记

未知GMAT2016-10-17 11:33

摘要:1. The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of

1. The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.

A. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were

B. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each,

C. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms, each that had been

D. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms and with each

E. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms each had been

A: were谓语重复,应该去掉

B: correct,connected分词修饰句子主语settlements

C: 第二个of修饰Structures不对,应该修饰scale;each同位语从句用过去完成时没必要,

D: 第二个of修饰Structures不对,应该修饰scale;and with each没有平行对象,

E: 第二个of修饰Structures不对,应该修饰scale;each后面是完整句子但没有连词

注意:1、The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale of up to 600 rooms each, connected by a complex regional system of roads. each指The Anasazi settlements,而不是rooms或者structures!2、介词的修饰对象、插入语、逗号+过去分词的用途及修饰对象

2. According to one expert, the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not so much that dogs are being bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria as that the breeds have relatively few founding members.

A. the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not so much that dogs are being bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria

B. the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not as much their being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria as much

C. it is not so much the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog that they are being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria as much

D. it is not so much the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is their being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria so much

E. it is not so much the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog to be bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria

A: correct,for looks or to meet 平行修饰谓语bred

B: not so much their…as much as that 不平行

C: it表语从句用法错,not so as…as much as 不平行

D: 同上,第二个is多余, not so much… so much as用法错

E: 同上,to be bred 和 to meet 逻辑不平行

注意:

1、not so much that… as that表示与其说…不如说,形式平行

2、for looks or to meet是功能平行而不是形式平行,表示be bred的目的

3、从表面上看E的to be done 和 to do形式上最平行,但逻辑上修饰对象是错的,是迷惑选项。

3. Greatly influenced by the Protested missionary Samuel Kirkland, the Oneida was the only one of the five-nation Iroquois League who sided with the colonists during the American Revolution.

A. was the only one of the five-nation Iroquois League who sided

B. was alone of the five-nation Iroquois League when they sided

C. alone among the five-nation Iroquois League sided

D. were the only ones out of the five nations of Iroquois League in siding

E. only of the five-nation Iroquois League had sided

A: the Oneida表示民族时用复数概念, was应该是were

B: was应该是were

C: correct , the Oneida … sided with…;alone among the five-nation Iroquois League是修饰语修饰Oneida

D: the only ones 应该改成the only one

E: 修饰结构错误, only of用法不对,during应该用过去时而不是过去完成

注意:the Oneida表示一个民族时用复数,类似的词还有GWD考过的the Shang

4. Although the turtle has been toothless for more than 150 million years, in some contemporary turtle species the moderately sharp and jagged edges of their horny jaws function for teeth.

A. their horny jaws function for teeth

B. its horny jaws function for teeth

C. its horny jaws function as do teeth

D the horny jaws function as teeth do

E the horny jaws function as teeth

A: function as n. 固定用法

B: its 指代错, 应该是species

C: 同上

D: function as n. 固定用法,这里不是as引导句子做比较

E: correct

注意:function as … 和 A do as B do 的逻辑意思区别

区分A do as B do和一些有as的固定搭配的区别

5. The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and southern India alphabets.

A. the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and

B. the Aramaic script with it, and from which deriving both the northern and the

C. with it the Aramaic script, from which derive both the northern and the

D. with it the Aramaic script, from which derives both northern and

E. with it the Aramaic script, and deriving from it both the northern and

A: from which 的which指代it 错,was应该用were

B: and错,无平行需要

C: correct,后半部分是倒装,应该是both the northern and the southern India alphabets derive from the Aramaic script

D: derives用复数

E: and 前面不需要逗号,此外bringing 和 deriving 不应该是同一个主语

注意:

1、bring A with B 和bring with B A 都对 要判断后面的定语从句修饰的逻辑意思

2、from which的倒装结构

6. In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.

A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle

B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling

C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling

D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle

E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

A: as large or larger than 不完整,应该补充as

B: 同上,and circling没有前面平行的元素

C: correct,circling修饰planets,但存在了些许的歧义修饰Jupiter

D: mostly意思错,可以修饰at least而不是planets;which circle修饰的是planets没错

E: 同上

注意:

1、逗号+doing和which do定语修饰前面名词时的区别,语法上都没错,要看主谓搭配是否有歧义

2、most和mostly含义上有区别,一个指数量,一个指程度

7. Each year companies in the United State could save as much as $58 billion annually by preventing illness among employees and gain as much as $200 billion through improving performance of workers if they simply provided offices with cleaner air.

A. annually by preventing illness among employees and gain as much as $200 billion through improving performance of workers if they simply provided

B. annually if they prevented employee illness and gain as much as $200 billion through worker performance improved by simply providing

C. annually in employee illness prevention and gain as much as $200 billion through worker performance improved by simply providing

D. in employee illness prevention and gain as much as $200 billion through improving performance of workers if they simply provided

E. by preventing illness among employees and gain as much as $200 billion through improved worker performance if they simply provided

A: each year 和annually 意思重复,improving 表过程不表结果,应用improved,

B: 同上

C: 同上

D: in employee illness prevention要表达的意思错,

E: correct

注意:

1、表达通过什么方式的时候用by doing最简洁,

2、过去分词表结果,现在分词表过程,有逻辑意思上的差别,本题中不是通过提高performance,而是通过提高以后的performance

8 Women are expected to be the majority of student entering law school this fall, a trend ultimately placing more women in leadership position in politics and business.

A Women are expected to be the majority of student entering law school this fall, a trend ultimately placing

B The majority of students entering law school this fall are expected to be women, a trend that will ultimately place

C The majority of students entering law school this fall are expected to be women, which will ultimately place

D It is expected that the majority of students entering law school this fall will be women, a trend ultimately placing

E It is expected for the women to be the majority of students entering law school this fall, which will ultimately place

A: 同位语的placing结构,不能表现出即将发生的趋势,而是一直发生的

B: correct,用that定语从句修饰trend,清晰表明了要发生的动作

C: which无指代

D: 同A

E: 同C

注意:1、which和同位语结构同时出现,表明应该用同位语结构,因为which指代前面整个句子错;2、分词和that从句同时修饰一个名词,要看从句是否有表达分词不能表达的逻辑含义,如果是则选从句,反之选分词修饰更加简洁

9 The investigations of many psychologist and anthropologists support the generalization of there being little that is a significant difference in underlying mental processes manifested by people from different culture.

A of there being little that is a significant difference

B of there being little that is significantly different

C of little that is significantly different

D that there is little that is significantly different

E that there is little of significant differences

A: of there being 错,

B: 同上

C: 同上,

D: correct, little是名词,that从句修饰little

E: little of 一般加不可数名词,同时表达否定意义

注意:1、解释前一个名词优先使用同位语从句,遇到of + sth +doing,可以直接判断选那个that + sth + do结构 2、different和difference都可以加in表示在什么方面的不同

10. The yield per acre of coffee berries varies enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce enough berries to make between one and twelve pounds of dried beans a year.

A. enormously in that a single tree, depending on both its size and on climate and altitude, could produce

B. enormously in that a single tree, dependent on its size and also on climate and altitude, is able to produce

C. enormously, because a single tree, depending on its size and on climate and altitude, is able to produce

D. enormously, because a single tree, being dependent on its size, climate, and altitude, is capable of producing

E. enormously, because a single tree, dependent both on its size as well as on climate and altitude, could produce

A: in that不如because 简洁, on both … and on …不平行

B: 同上, dependent一般用作表语结构,不如depending分词合适

C: correct

D: being dependent啰嗦;

E: dependent一般用作表语结构,不如depending分词合适;both and不平行

注意:

1. 注意未划线结构表示从1到12磅用了between one and twelve而不是from one to twelve,虽然两种表达都对

2. in that和because,GMAC认为Because更简洁现代,

3. dependent一般用作表语结构,不如depending分词合适

4. 表示有能力,can, is able to, is capable of doing

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